Research and Published Literature

Independent Research and Published Literature

Vascular Access/Intraosseous Infusion

All of Pyng Medical’s established and many new products have been documented and reviewed in third-party publications, journals and research studies, as well as clinical data trials. On this page, you will find a comprehensive (though not complete) list of articles, studies and trials on Sternal Intraosseous Infusion.

Published Literature:

Saving the critically injured trauma patient: a retrospective analysis of 1000 uses of intraosseous access;  Lewis, Philippa and  Wright, Chris, EMJ Online First, published on June 30, 2014 as 10.1136/emermed-2014-203588 Access the full article here.

Pharmacokinetics of Intraosseus and Central Venous Drug Delivery During Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR); Hoskins, Stephen L, et al, University of Texas and Sao Paulo Medical School. Resuscitation 83 (2012) 107-112. Access or purchase the full article at:

Intraosseous infusion rates under high pressure: A cadaveric comparison of anatomic sites; Pasley, Jason, et al, US Air Force Center for Sustainment ofTrauma and Readiness Skills, Baltimore , MD. J Trauma Acute Care Surgery Volume 78, Number 2. Access or purchase the full article at:

Comparison of Tibial Intraosseus, Sternal Intraosseus, and Intravenous Routes of Administration on Pharmacokinetics of Epinephrine During Cardiac Arrest; Burgert, James, et al, Fort Sam Houston and Northeastern University. AANA Journal, August 2012, Vol. 80, No. 4. Access or purchase the full article at:

Time to Administration of Epinephrine and Outcome After In-hospital Cardiac Arrest with Non-shockable Rhythms: Retrospective Analysis of Large In-hospital Data Registry; Donnino, Michael W, et al, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center. BMJ 2014;348:g3028 doi: 10.1136/bmj.g3028. May 2014. Access or purchase the full article at:

The Sternal IO and Vascular Access – Any Port in a Storm Mark Vojtko, RN, BSN, CCRN, and Dan Hanfling, MD, FACEP, Air Medical Journal 2003; 22(1): 32-35

Field Trial of the FAST1® Adult Intraosseous Infusion System by EMT Paramedic and EMT – Intermediate Personnel Regions Hospital – Saint Paul, Minnesota RJ Frascone, MD, Koren Kaye, MD, Terry A Provo, EMT-P, Joe Jensen, RN, EMT-P, Prehospital Emergency Care 2003; 7(1): 174

Obtaining Vascular Access: Is There a Place for the Sternal IO? Ralph Frascone, MD, David Dries, MSE, MD, Terry Gisch, NREMT-P, Koren Kaye, MD, and Joe Jensen, NREMT-Pair, Medical Journal 2001; 20(6): 20-22

A New System for Sternal Intraosseous Infusion in Adults Andrew Macnab, MD, Jim Christenson, MD, Judy Findlay, PEng, MASc,Bruce Horwood, MD, David Johnson, PhD, Lanny Jones, Kelly Phillips,Charles Pollack, Jr., MD, David J. Robinson, MD, Chris Rumball, MD,Tom Stair, MD, Brian Tiffany, MD, PhD, Max Whelan, MD Prehospital Emergency Care 2000; 4(2): 173-177. Download the study PDF.

Using a Sternal IO Device in Adults Michael W Day, RN, CCRN, NREMT, MSN, Nursing99 1999; 29(12): 22-23

Paramedic Evaluation of Adult Intraosseous Infusion System J Findlay, PEng, David L Johnson, MD, Andrew J Macnab, MD, FRCPC, D MacDonald, R Shellborn, L Susak, RN, BScN, Prehospital Disaster Medicine 2006; 21(5): 329-334

Cadaver Testing to Validate Design Criteria of an Adult Intraosseous Infusion System David L Johnson, MD, J Findlay, PEng, Andrew J Macnab, MD, FRCPC, L Susak, RN, BScN,Military Medicine 2005; 170(7):vii

Intraosseous Infusion Brian G. LaRocco, BS, Henry E. Wang, MD, Prehospital Emergency Care 2003; 7(2): 280-285

Optional Skill 9: Adult Intraosseous Infusion Ed. John Campbell, Basic Trauma Life Support for the EMT-B & First Responder, 4th Edition, 2003; ISBN 0-13-189378-5: 295-297

Intraosseous Infusion Devices: A Comparison for Potential Use in Special Operations Mark D. Calkins, MD, Geoff Fitzgerald, MD, Timothy B. Bentley, PhD, and David Burris, MD,The Journal of Trauma: Injury, Infection, and Critical Care 2000; 48(6): 1068-1074 Download PDF (60 KB)

Intraosseous Infusion, Prehospital Emergency Care, LaRocco, BG, Wang HE,  APR/JUN 2003;7,2: 280-285.

Obtaining Vascular Access: Is There a Place for the Sternal IO? Frascone, R, et. Al. , Air Medical Journal 2001, 20;6: 20-22.

Successful Placement of an Adult Sternal Intraosseous Line Though Burned Skin: Frascone, R, et. al., , Journal of Burn Care & Rehabilitation, SEP/OCT 2003, 306-308.

Does Intraosseous Equal Intravenous? A Pharmacokinetic Study:Von Hoff, DD, et. al.,  American Journal of Emergency Medicine 2008; 26:31-38.

Is The Intraosseous Access Route Fast and Efficacious Compared to Conventional Central venous Catheterization In Adult Patients Under Resuscitation In the Emergency Department? A Prospective Observational Pilot Study: Leidel, BA, et. al., , Patient safety In Surgery 2009; 3:24: 1-8.

Evaluation of an Intraosseous Infusion Device for the Resuscitation of Hypovolemic Shock: Halvorsen, LH, et. al., , Journal of Trauma 1990, 30:6; 652-659.

A Review of Intraosseous Vascular Access: Current Status and Military Application,Dubick, MA, Holcomb JB,  Military Medicine 2000, 165:7; 552-559.

Intraosseous Infusion: Not Just For Kids Anymore, DeBoer, S, et. al.,  Emergency Medical Services 2005, MAR; 34(3):54; 55-63.

Guidelines for Prehospital Fluid Resuscitation in the Injured Patient, Cotton, BA, et. al.,  Journal of Trauma 2009, 67:2; 389-401.

Sternal Intraosseous Infusions,Koschel, MJ,  American Journal of Nursing 2005, 105:1; 66-68.

Feasibility of Sternal Intraosseous Access By Emergency Medical Technician Students, Miller, DB, et. al., PreHospital Emergency Care 2005, 9:2; 73-78.

Emergency War Surgey, 3rd Revision 2004, multiple authors and editors; Borden Institute, pp. 8.1-8.4.

Combat Medic Field Reference, 2005, multiple authors and editors; Jones and Bartlett Publishers, pp. 13-23, 209-214.

Cadaver testing to Validate Design Criteria of an Adult Intraosseous Infusion System, Johnson, DL,  Military Medicine 2005, MAR;170:3; 251-257.

Intraosseous Infusion Rates Under High Pressure: A Cadaver Study of Anatomical Site Comparisons, Boswell, Kimberly MD, Dubose, Lt Col Joseph J. MD, matsuura, Michael MD, et. al., (USAF Funding: FA8650-11-2-6D02) 7 AUG 2012

Tactical Combat Casualty Care