What is Intraosseous Infusion?

Intraosseous Infusion is a fast and effective way of getting critical fluids and medications into the vascular system. Whereas Intravenous (IV) access uses a peripheral vein, Intraosseous Infusion (IO) accesses the venous system through the bone marrow.


Who Needs Rapid Vascular Access?

Rapid vascular access, getting critical medications and fluids into the bloodstream quickly, is an essential early treatment for many patients suffering from disease and trauma, whether in a hospital or pre-hospital environment.
Regardless of your level of training and expertise, the ability to rapidly administer medications and fluids is important, and in many cases your patient outcome depends on it. This is especially critical when it comes to trauma on the battlefield, in motor vehicle accidents, or in a variety of complex disasters.

Intraosseous infusion (using such devices as FAST1, FASTResponder, and FASTTactical from Pyng Medical), is a very quick, effective and easy-to-learn skill that can provide rapid vascular access for patients requiring fluids and medications in these circumstances.

When is Intraosseous Infusion Used?

Any fluid or medication that can be delivered intravenously (by IV), can be delivered via IO at approximately the same or faster rate.

Rapid vascular access is required for a variety of medical conditions including, but not limited to, cardiac arrest, cardiac arrhythmias, myocardial infarctions, syncope, hypotension, anaphylactic shock, diabetes and numerous other commonly occurring medical conditions.

Any medication or fluid that can be administered by IV can also be administered by IO, with the same quantity and flow rate as IV. Traditionally intravenous infusion (IV), using a peripheral vein, has been the preferred method to establish vascular access.

Many studies have demonstrated the numerous downfalls and challenges of solely relying on this technique (IV) for vascular access. IV’s, as taught in most class rooms and training programs are usually successful and easy when performed on healthy, well hydrated fellow students. In the “real world” of patient care, especially in an emergency setting, IV’s are more difficult to use on patients who are obese, are hypovolemic, or have poor cardiac output.

Studies have demonstrated only 60% to 95% initial success rate for IV attempts. Additionally, the time to start an IV varies from 1.5 to 13 minutes; in most cases significantly longer than the time required to place an IO device.
In fact, FASTResponder and FASTTactical can be placed and vascular access achieved in 10 seconds.


What are the Types of Intraosseous Access?

There are three main locations for Intraosseous access, the humerus, the tibia and the sternum. Pyng Medical’s FASTResponder and FASTTactical devices use the sternal route for IO because:

  • The Sternum is the easiest and most reliable IO site to locate and place. Humerus is difficult to locate, and the tibia gives poor flow rates as compared to humeral and sternal.
  • Clinical data indicates the Sternal route for IO (as compared to humeral or tibial) improves patient outcomes. See go.pyng.com/sternal-io for details.

Intraosseous Infusion – A 90 Year History

Intraosseous infusion is not new. In fact, it has been a proven technique for more than 90 years, and IO devices were included in a variety of military medical kits during WWII. Classically, a hollow needle of various lengths was inserted using a manual twisting or boring motion. Many of you may have used various types of needles for IO.

In the 1990’s Pyng Medical introduced FAST1, the first easy-to-use, easy-to-learn, depth-controlled sternal IO device that was cleared by the US FDA and approved for military use. The FAST1 device has saved thousands of lives on the battlefield and in civilian communities by providing rapid and effective vascular access for all levels of health care providers.

In 2013, Pyng Medical released FASTResponder, a modified version of FAST1 developed specifically for use in civilian EMS and hospital settings. Pyng’s newest IO device is FASTTactical, a device designed for both military and civilian use, and is based on the same design as FASTResponder, but comes in compact rigid packaging to more easily fit in medical bags and be protected from damage.

 

Who uses Pyng’s Military Medical Device Solutions?

Conventional and special operations forces personnel of all services from combat medics to physician’s assistants, nurses and physicians.[/fancy-ul]